Photo Slideshow
See all of the photos from this story
Download PDF
Download a printable PDF version of this article

扬州宝晶宝商贸有限公司

强壮的公么征服我电视剧

By Aaron Hoover

双鸭山通皇光贸易有限公司

Modern medicine has defeated a lot of bogeymen, but it remains locked in a war of attrition with an age-old nemesis: infection.

Nationwide, hospital care workers confront about 1.7 million healthcare-related infections annually — and lose about 99,000 patients to them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s more than double the fatalities tied to auto wrecks every year.

What’s worse, medicine’s main weapons are flawed or weakening. Disinfectants are impossible to apply everywhere, inevitably leaving spots for bacteria to grow. Chemical controls, such as coated implants, can have dangerous side effects or harm the environment. Antibiotics, one-time miracle cures, are losing their punch to genetically resistant bacteria.

But common menaces such as Staphylococcus aureus, as well as more dangerous cousins such as “flesh eating” methicillin-resistant staph — commonly known by the initials MRSA — may soon face a new barrier.

Ironically, it is inspired by a fearsome flesh eater of its own kind: the shark.

Conventional controls aim to kill bacteria. Tapping the discoveries of a University of Florida materials science and engineering researcher, UF biotechnology spin-off Sharklet Technologies has a radically different approach. The Alachua-based company seeks to discourage bacteria from colonizing surfaces in hospitals and medical devices using a microscopic pattern modeled on the skin of the ocean’s most notorious predator.

Sharklet is gearing up to sell what it calls “engineered surfaces” that, laboratory tests show, ward off not only staph and Escherichia coli, but also the more dangerous MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

“We believe we will have hygienic surface covers on the market this year,” says Sharklet Technologies CEO Joe Bagan. “We’re working on different medical devices to put our pattern on, and it’s going to be a little longer for those. Maybe a couple of years.”

阿里寿亨久设备有限公司


The latest weapon in the war on bacteria didn’t spring from a medical laboratory. Instead, it is rooted in materials science and engineering Professor Tony Brennan’s efforts to solve a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships.

Some people are lucky enough to have great ideas. For Brennan, it was more a matter of asking a great question.

Brennan remembers the day well. He was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu in 2002 as part of his Navy-sponsored research. Convinced he could stop tiny algal spores from attaching by using rows of microscopic channels, he had eagerly awaited a look at experimental samples previously submerged in the harbor. But the results were abysmal, with the samples coming out of the water festooned with algae.

He and a handful of colleagues were watching an algae-coated nuclear submarine leave port when the question popped into his head.

“The submarine looked like a big whale lumbering out of the harbor,” Brennan says. “I asked, ‘Do whales foul?’ And everyone said, ‘yeah, whales are heavily fouled.’ So I started asking the question, ‘which marine and freshwater animals don’t foul?’”

He couldn’t get the question answered to his satisfaction that day. But follow-up research revealed that of all big marine animals, sharks remain most glisteningly smooth.

Brennan spent much of his career engineering new biomaterials for dental implants. He asked a colleague at the Florida Institute of Technology, Geoffrey Swain, to take an impression of a shark skin using a common silicone material. Like an impression for an ordinary tooth crown, it provided a negative imprint — in this case, a small, but visible pattern of rounded-off, diamond like, scales. (Many people believe sharks don’t have scales. In fact, the creatures’ scales are very small. They are known as placoid scales, or dermal denticles.)

Each scale was made up of seven tiny ribs. Brennan used a special tool, an optical profilometer, to measure the scales’ corresponding roughness. To his surprise, the ribs’ width-to-height ratios closely matched one of his mathematical models for roughness — one that he had estimated would discourage algae spores from settling.

At the time, Brennan believed the spores would have a negative reaction to surface roughness features measured in a handful of microns. The shark scale ribs were far bigger. So he shrunk the sharkskin rib pattern by a factor of 20, separating each rib by two to five microns. Tapping a process similar to the one used to make computer chips, he next fabricated thousands of these tiny “riblet” patterns on plastic.

He plunged the plastic into algae-laced seawater, waited an hour and pulled it out.

“The first time we tested it,” Brennan says, “we had an 85-percent reduction in the settlement of green algae.”

牡丹江多飞金机械有限公司


It was just one small test with just one type of fouling organism, but the results were exciting. That’s because algae and its ilk are major problems not only for the Navy but for all shippers. Fouled vessels have more drag as they move through water, slowing them and cutting into their fuel efficiency. The Navy estimates fouled hulls use 15 to 30 percent more fuel than clean ones, raising its fuel bill by tens of millions of dollars.

Following in the footsteps of shipbuilders since antiquity, the Navy and commercial shipping lines have fought the problem with copper-based paint. But pollution and cost concerns spurred the Navy to look for more environmentally friendly, less expensive solutions.

With the Office of Naval Research’s continued sponsorship, Brennan set about confirming and expanding his results while also seeking to understand the underlying mechanism. He applied for his first patent in 2004. Several years and at least $1 million later — the Florida High Technology Corridor Council has also been a supporter — Brennan has confirmed that his pattern resists not only green algae but also some varieties of barnacles. He has received two patents, has applications for several more patents under consideration and continues to work toward testing the pattern on real-life ship hulls.

Meanwhile, the research has also expanded in a vastly different direction. One of the fouling organisms that Brennan sought to discourage was the tubeworm. Tubeworms need bacteria to settle. So, in the spring of 2005, he asked an undergraduate at work in his laboratory to grow some bacteria on the Sharklet™ pattern.

A few weeks later, Mathew Blackburn reported back: He couldn’t do it. The E. coli bacteria would not attach. Brennan assigned two graduate students to work with Blackburn, but the team could coax the E. coli to grow only up to the side of the pattern.

It wasn’t until Brennan read Blackburn’s final report that the idea dawned on him: Perhaps the pattern could do more than ward off organisms that go after ships. Maybe it could discourage those bad bacteria that target people.

“He thought he was failing, and when I got his report and looked at it, it was like, ‘Holy smokes!’” Brennan says. “This could be very interesting.”

林芝源复成商贸有限公司

Marine fouling organisms and bacteria are very different life forms. But the two also share important similarities, Brennan says. Both can move, and both put down adhesive pads when they first stick to a surface. Green algae and many bacteria also seem to appreciate company. They take hold singly or in small groups, then seek to establish large colonies.

Like other life forms, Brennan says, bacteria and fouling organisms seek the path of least resistance. He believes the Sharklet pattern discourages colonization because it requires too much energy to put down roots. The consequence: The organisms decide to keep house hunting. With enough surface protected, the theory goes, they die or become less of a threat.

Whatever the mechanism, the Sharklet pattern works — in laboratory tests, at least.
The Navy’s interests were confined to fouling, so Brennan turned to UF’s extensive medical resources to pursue the medical applications.

In 2007, he founded Sharklet Technologies, based at UF’s Sid Martin Biotechnology Development Incubator. There, Brennan chairs the company’s scientific advisory board.

Brennan’s and the company’s tests reveal that the pattern is remarkably effective at delaying colonization from staph, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and other pathogens. Bagan, Sharklet Technologies’ CEO, says the independent infectious disease laboratory also found a “statistically significant” difference in the survival of MRSA and VRE bacteria in short time trials.

Sharklet Technologies’ time-lapse images tell the tale graphically.

Bacterial colonies grow steadily on a smooth surface over a period of three weeks, whereas they seem to struggle to get established on the Sharklet pattern. By day 21, bacterial films turn 77 percent of the smooth surface bright red —
versus 35 percent of the Sharklet pattern.

As promising as the results have been, the pattern has yet to be tested in a real medical setting. But that’s about to change.

Bagan says Sharklet Technologies has cleared all the major hurdles in an effort to test adhesive-backed versions of the pattern on common hospital surfaces at a large California hospital. Technicians, he says, have already determined the surfaces most likely to contain large bacterial colonies. Known as “high-touch” surfaces, they include nursing call buttons, bed rail control panels and touch-screen cardiac monitor screens. The company plans to apply the adhesive-backed Sharklet pattern to these surfaces and then monitor them for colonization.

Down the road, Sharklet Technologies also hopes to cover and test medical devices and instruments. Bagan says that because the pattern is not a chemical coating and does not introduce any new substances, it probably will not require clinical trials, but some safety trials may be needed.

Whatever the hurdles, the market is huge. The CDC estimates that 32 percent of all healthcare-related infections are tied to urinary tract infections, often stemming from urinary catheters. If the Sharklet pattern could make catheters safer, that alone would have a huge impact.

Brennan, for his part, is eager to gauge his invention’s appeal.

“I am anxious to see this thing put out there because once you put it on the market, you really get a test,” he says. “The market will determine viability.”

 

 

related link:
www.sharklet.com成都盈中晶有限公司

德阳厚厚进贸易有限公司
阜阳亨金耀机械有限公司
pp1.app在哪下载 水果污视频在线观看下载 草莓app下载 f2app富二代下载网址 番茄社区成人 污污软件免费下载女生看 正面看美女散尿频视频 善良的小峓子在钱播放20 免费体验120分钟福利 上班女郎北岛玲在线观看 亚洲男同GaY在线观看 歪歪漫画~动漫首页 swag在线播放 日本真人试看120秒 小草在线观看视频免费下载 冈本视频下载污版app 日本另类videossexotv 泡芙短视频无限次 a4yy 豆奶短视频app免费下载污污 超碰在线97国产碰碰可观看 扶老二官方 丁香五月成人网 pp1.app在哪下载 0adc影院0adc在线 水蜜蜜视频在线观看 狗狗进到里面变大了 七妹免费视频 毛片大全真人在线 菠萝视频污app爱要做出来 国一免费自产区 强奸图片 五月桃花网 120秒小视频 翁公下面好涨视频 日韩放荡少妇无码视频 美女裸体做爱视频 小苹果污软件免费 swag没有免费视频吗 向日葵播放器 萝li 交 swag圣诞节 赤井美月 初恋视屏 免费AV亚洲国产在线 免费120秒 人与狗交配 95视频 红颜软件免费下载 翔田千里免费中文字幕 日本jazz亚洲护士 水果视频免费观看在线 .www红色一片在线 水果视频免费版下载安装 泡芙app官方网站 太极3电影完整版在线观看 李宗瑞全集在线 Www.63W63.co鈥唌 中国女人pononon在线18 名优馆app官网下载新版 日韩经典AV在线观看 玉薄团 向日葵app下载污下载ios 小草在线播放完整版 杨幂在日本曝光在线观看 国产精品网曝门在线观看 jiz之18第一次 一本大道无线高清在线观看 三级网 菠萝蜜在线视频 668看片 三级网 裸聊app 芭乐APP下载 日韩高清在线亚洲专区 日本伦理java YY6680 欧美13一14sexvideos处 男生女生做污 欧美性爱 在线观看直播的app 宝宝福利吧在线新视野影视 90从前进入里面 uu293 广西柳州莫菁国产9 爱情岛在线观看路线1 路线 性爱小说 啪啪不充钱 黄页软件免费观看网站 刚本视频播放 芭乐APP下载 茄子视频app在线观看入口 身为人母无删减视频观看 柠檬网 日本最新av软件app下载 烟花巷观众版 机机桶机机免费观看 天堂AV亚洲AV欧美AV中文 蜜柚怎么下载 第一精品福利导福航 番茄社区app直播平台下载 麻豆传媒AV在线播放 91精品视频 2019午夜福利ak在线 二龙湖浩哥1高清完整版TV 小草社区官网在线观看 mm131杨晨晨紧身 欧美makelove在线观看 艳姆1到6集转码 日韩放荡少妇无码视频 美女裸体做爱视频 草莓app下载深夜释放自己 爽爽影院免费观看视频 久久在精品线影院 国产 亚洲 欧美 另类 2020国自产高清视频在线观看 泡泡视频app下载最新版 日韩放荡少妇无码视频 上海李雅门全集在线播放 男生女生做污 芭乐视频在线观看免费视频 河北全程露脸对白自拍 菠萝app 久久热国产 成熟女性生殖真人实图 2019视频精品全部 桃色视频大全 国产A片 ノ瀬アメリ东京热在线播放 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 2018高清日本一道国产-在 新版猫咪官网app 冈本视频下载污版app 玉薄团 男男versios视频 swag没有免费视频吗 日本免费48福利体检区 普通用户体验120分钟免费 老富二代app官网下载 b.aff91 玉薄团 国产户外白天勾搭直播在线 水果视频官网在线观看 久久热这里只有精品 a4yy mdpub麻豆在线 樱桃视频官网_樱桃视频app 麻豆原创免费观看 阴道图片 少妇人妻挤奶水中文视频毛片 龚玥菲价值888视频 小草视频手机在线视频 年轻人在线播放 初恋视屏 麻豆传媒直播app在哪下载 免费爱做网站在线看 俄罗斯old青年old老太 叶子直播在线观看 重考生漫画免费阅读完整 人妻 偷拍 无码 中文字幕 刚本视频播放 啊好疼你们一个一个来 javhd高清 欧美性爱 一一在线播放 lh8d.com 污污软件免费下载女生看 萝li 交 千层浪短视频官网 抖阴直播 少妇放荡免费视频 猪蜜蜜电视剧免费观看在线观看 日韩av在线播放 麻豆原创传媒 天狼影院2019最新电视剧在线观看 水果视频app黄下载 嫩草视频 德田完整视频在线观看 免费爱做网站在线看 久草热视频 2020黄频免费高清视频 adc视频-年龄确认18 人妻合集500章 大学女宿舍洗澡偷拍正在播放 触手肉动漫无修在线播放 机机桶机机免费观看 极速影院 豆奶短视频app安卓安装 可以试看120分钟做受 芭乐APP下载 七仙女爱爱直播 歪歪漫画免费观看观看 韩国女星潜规全集01 www.xy16app 菠萝视频污app爱要做出来 SWAG在线 歪歪漫画免费观看观看 youjizzzxxx 红颜软件免费下载 韩国美女网 上海李雅门全集在线播放 狱火重生在线观看免费 柠檬视频在线观看 杨思敏版一级毛片 第一精品福利导福航 香草视频app下载在线观看 国产 亚洲 欧美 另类 爱情岛免费观看线路大全 www.xy16app b.aff91cc下载app 刚出门2秒就和中文字幕 澳门5G免费影院 成都黑帽门视频完整播放 俄罗斯肥妇BBw 湿湿影院 非洲人高清免费视频 冈本视频下载污版app免费 龚玥菲之潘金逵在线观看 上班女郎北岛玲在线观看 向日葵播放器 俄罗斯old青年old老太 午夜福利电影 小泽玛利亚AV在线观看 cici直播app下载安装 李宗瑞视频 深夜释放自己 千层浪在线观看 天狼影院2019最新电视剧在线观看 7m分类 精品大全免费 猫咪社区 仓井空 www.hea.cn 狱火重生在线观看免费 无收费看污网站40分钟 日韩经典AV在线观看 儿子比老公的大 妈妈的朋友3免费视频大全 菠萝蜜污污观看高清频道 欧美偷拍自拍 avtt3 黑白配HD2018 4480yy午夜私人影院 sis001 秘密教学46 河北全程露脸对白自拍 mdpub麻豆在线 秋霞在线观看片无码免费 肌肌桶肌肌出水视频 美女裸体做爱视频 千成浪 sexxxx 茄子视频app在线观看入口 玉薄团 樱井莉亚学生在线观看 中国videoses12~15 男女性高爱潮刺激视频 汤姆高清在线观看 yy漫画首页网站入口 樱桃短视频樱桃小视频 在线观看 免费av视频 欧美成在线手机版 秋葵ios下载安装 秋葵视频 YY6680 草莓视频app最污网站 欧美性交 无码国产精品高清免费 秘密教学46 色欲色香天天天综合网 抖阴官方版 污污软件免费下载女生看 .www红色一片在线 后宫视频 爱情岛在线观看路线1 路线 泡芙约会 uu293 麻豆视频观看 久久热这里只有精品 幻音音乐腐肉在线听 触手肉动漫无修在线播放 肌肌桶肌肌出水视频 富二代app看视频 久久精彩视频 欧美性交 武藤兰老师在线观看 九九线精品视频在线观看视频 草莓视污频app污版下载 柠檬网 玉薄团 村上里沙 免费完整GV片在线播放 泷泽萝拉在线观看 欧美GV完整版视频网站 不卡电影 芊芊影视 md.pud com 芊芊影视 豆奶视频官网ios 妖精视频app在线观看 麻豆传媒AV在线播放 2020年轻人在线观看视频 国产 亚洲 欧美 另类 午夜伦理 国产午夜精品视频在线播放 大秀直播平台聚合 骚虎在线 免费av视频 久艾草在线精品视频在线观看 桃花APP 韩国电影妈妈的朋友2在线线观中 女人18毛片视频一级毛片 久久在精品线影院 桃花网 月光影视 水果视频免费观看在线 台湾swagger平台 红颜软件免费下载 男女做受性高爱潮视频 农村乱婬故事 2龙湖四平青年完整版2 俄罗斯old青年old老太 亚洲 AV 日本AV 韩国AV 图区 67194.56 羞羞漫画免费全集漫画版 赤井美月 抖阴视频在线 抖阴官方版 pp1.app在哪下载 春水堂麻豆视频APP 18岁禁止观看免费 日本熟妇牲交视频 chengrendongman 泡芙短视频无限次 蜜柚视频app 每集都开车动漫在线全集观看 AA级女人大片喷水视频 芭乐APP下载 蜜桔视频大全 骚虎在线 秋葵app下载在线版 刚本视频播放 番茄社区成人 mdpub麻豆在线 ノ瀬アメリ东京热在线播放 男人的加油站秋葵app 国语对白你快点 妈妈的朋友6在线线观免费观看 新版猫咪官网app 汤姆高清在线观看 国产自拍学生 污污的视频带点疼痛 11电影院 国产精品刺激福利视频 向日葵视频色板app下载ios污 五月天婷婷在在线视频 千成浪 橙子直播276,tv diy101 2019最新国产卡在线观看 久久热精品在线 人狗性交视频 恋夜秀场安卓版请用安卓免费 嘿嘿连载APP 草莓视频. 污链接下载 视频 小草视频网站 她们的恶作剧画免费观看漫画 日本另类videossexotv 亚洲快播 adc在线观看年龄确认18 酒色国产在线视频 身为人母无删减视频观看 一区二区三区四区高清视频localhost 杨思敏版一级毛片 暖暖视频免费播放 爱情论坛观看路线一免费 男女性爱 久久在精品线影院 swag视频在线观看 swag在线观看完整视频 中国女人pononon在线18 妈妈的朋友3免费视频大全 秋葵app下载 中国videoses12~15 欧美在线观看 小蝌蚪app无限观看污片 考拉大秀直播 13一18sex破除 樱桃视频官网_樱桃视频app 一本之道高清在线3线观看 橙子直播276,tv 极品女高中生 李宗瑞全集 被同桌摸出水好爽视频 叶子直播在线观看 成都黑帽门视频完整播放 最新一本之道免费观看 重考生漫画免费阅读完整 日本另类videossexotv 无收费看污网站40分钟 苦瓜视频 成版人抖音富二代视频破解版 依恋app 阴道图片 韩国女星潜规全集01 喷奶水毛片手机观看 飘花伦理在手机观线 榴莲视频.app污免费 明星换脸无码AV网站 最新 国产 精品 精品 视频 女人18毛片视频一级毛片 澳门5G免费影院 丝瓜视频I视频污app下载 泽艺在线 久久热这里只有精品 人妻无码手机在线视频 兄妹蕉谈完整版在线 麻豆 黄色激情小说 水蜜蜜视频在线观看 搞逼视频 在线视频 国产 亚洲 素人 水果视频下载免费安装 视频 swag圣诞节 爱情岛论坛免费观看线路1,2, 妈妈的朋友3 95视频 火影忍者纲手Av在线观看 94sm 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 暖暖视频免费播放 狱火重生在线观看 黑人极限深喉到胃 麻豆原创传媒 波罗蜜app超级污在线观看 不卡电影 樱桃视频官网_樱桃视频app 中国女人pononon在线18 花与蛇 m3 秋葵ios下载安装 可以试看120分钟做受 免费AV亚洲国产在线 水蜜蜜视频在线观看 麻豆传媒作品 prohub官网入口 人与狗交配 豌豆直播看大秀 菠萝app c chinese中国情侣 下载污视频app的软件 爱情岛在线观看路线1 路线 黑人极限深喉到胃 芭乐视频app污版下载草莓视频 媒新年贺岁麻豆传媒映 热吧app在线观看 小草在线播放完整版 久热视频在线观看 自拍偷拍在线视频 普通用户体验120分钟免费 5G确认年龄进入 6080电影网站 妈妈的朋友3 身为人母无删减视频观看 另类专区中文 秘密教学在线漫画全集 www.md.pud 桃色视频大全 免费JIZZXXX swag 在线 小姐黄直播 好翁息肉欲TXT下载 0adc影院0adc在线 adc年龄确认大驾光临未满 琪琪影院 久久精品这里才是免费 久草热视频 手.心app 下载安装 40分钟超级超污染动画视频 水果视频app黄下载 590se在线观看 正在播放潮崎美亚AV播放 下载污视频app的软件 芭乐污视频 富二代app看视频 茄子在线观看 翁公下面好涨视频 9uu官网 杨幂在日本曝光在线观看 在线萝福利莉视频免费 秋霞在线观看片无码免费 西瓜视频无线免费大全下载 食色app成版人下载短视频 鲁啊鲁啊在线观看免费 2020国自产高清视频在线观看 秋葵官方网站下载app ae86福利 任我橹这里有精品视频在线 日本A片大全高清 sg111 凌晨6点26分中日打响第一枪 小小影视网在线观看 秘密教学第40集 嫖妓50岁老熟妇456 成熟女性生殖真人实图 1包头过长图 含蓄草 要看tv43pps 91精品视频 樱花直播app官网最新版下载地址 忍着娇喘在公面前被夜袭 芊芊影视 草莓app下载 6080电影网站 丝袜足交 美女扒B阴 一一在线播放 在线电影 向日葵视频下载app 扶老二官方 .www红色一片在线 超级乱婬 成年性色生活性夜影院 4hc44四虎www网址2 秋葵App 强奸图片 丝瓜视频在线观看污安卓 品色网 仙桃影视 水果视频黄 久久精彩视频 男女做爱的视频 日韩放荡少妇无码视频 神马888 免费AV亚洲国产在线 芊芊影视 豆奶视频破解版在线看 校园契约3D免费漫画71话 幸福宝网站芭乐在线 黑白配HD2018 杏仁视频 下载污视频app的软件 欢喜视频app 恋夜秀场安棹手机全部例表UC 龚玥菲之潘金逵在线观看 豆奶视频破解版在线看 免费120秒 广西柳州莫菁国产9 .www红色一片在线 亚洲 欧美 自拍 小说 图片 草莓视频官方版在线视频观看 ae86福利 被同桌摸出水好爽视频 苦瓜视频 青青国产免费手机频在线观看 久久热这里只有精品